HORTENSE de BEAUHARNAIS

DAUGHTER OF AN EMPRESS
QUEEN OF HOLLAND
MOTHER OF AN EMPEROR

zaterdag 17 december 2016

The Day Thomas Jefferson’s Daughter Told Him She Wanted to Become A Nun

There was a period when Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, and Benjamin Franklin were all in Paris at the same time. Franklin was there as our first ambassador to the court of Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette. His job was get funds from France to bankroll the Revolution, and to cement a military alliance so we would win the war. Jefferson and Adams were there as commerce commissioners whose task it was to arrange an import/export trade deal with the French. Being in Catholic France was a new experience for all of them, and we know that the Church made a profound impression on one of Jefferson’s daughters, Patsy, and on one of Adams’ sons, John Quincy.

Polly and Patsy Jefferson were in their early teens when they arrived in Paris, so one of Jefferson’s first tasks was to find a suitable school for his daughters. All of his new French acquaintances recommended an elite convent school, l’Abbaye Royal de Panthemont in the Faubourg Saint-Germain. There the girls studied mathematics, history, geography, and they learned modern languages. It was a splendid education, of a kind that very few girls received back in America. Jefferson’s daughters also learned to play the harpsichord from Claude Balbastre, the organist at the Cathedral of Notre Dame.

In addition to operating a school, the nuns also offered rooms to aristocratic ladies who sought a quiet retreat from their troubles—the lack of a husband, the death of a husband, or the separation from a husband. One of the ladies living at the Panthemont at the same time as Polly and Patsy was Josephine de Beauharnais, the future lover, wife, and empress of Napoleon. Read all:ncregister/the-day-thomas-jeffersons-daughter-told-him-she-wanted-to-become-a-nun

maandag 12 december 2016

Les robes de Joséphine de Beauharnais au Château de Malmaison


© Agathe Lautréamont, 2016
Dentelle, soie, lin, mousseline, satin, jersey, velours, taffetas… Autant de termes qui évoquent richesse, délicatesse, goût et préciosité. Et c’est bien par ces mots que l’on pourrait qualifier la délicieuse toilette de la première épouse de l’Empereur Napoléon Bonaparte : Joséphine de Beauharnais. Ce trousseau est rarement sorti des réserves du Château de Malmaison car, vieux de maintenant plus de deux siècles, les vêtements peuvent grandement souffrir d’une exposition à l’air et à la lumière. Leur fragilité rajoute à leur grande beauté. Découvrons ensemble, en images, le parcours d’une sublime exposition qui laisse, à la sortie, des étoiles plein les yeux
exponaute/les-robes-de-josephine-de-beauharnais-au-chateau-de-malmaison/

maandag 5 december 2016

L’hôtel d’Eugène de Beauharnais à Paris se raconte


Dans le très beau salon des quatre saisons de l’hôtel de Beauharnais à Paris, des cygnes dorés s’invitent sur les pilastres qui courent autour de la pièce. Sur la corniche qu’ils supportent, ce sont des aigles, tout aussi resplendissant d’or, qui déploient leurs ailes. Lorsqu’il fut créé, au tout début du XIXe siècle, ce décor n’était en rien anodin.


L’aigle évoque Napoléon Bonaparte, le cygne son beau-fils Eugène de Beauharnais. Ce dernier est devenu propriétaire de cette belle demeure, édifiée en 1713 par l’architecte Boffrand, le 20 mai 1803 à l’âge de 22 ans. Et, bénéficiant des conseils avisés en matière de déco de sa mère Joséphine de Beauharnais et de sa sœur Hortense, et surtout de la générosité de l’empereur Napoléon Ier, qui à cette époque voyait en lui un successeur pour le trône, Eugène a fait subir aux lieux, en seulement quelques années, une totale et fort coûteuse métamorphose intérieure. parismatch/Royal-Blog/royaute-francaise/L-hotel-d-Eugene-de-Beauharnais-a-Paris-se-raconte-1111091

woensdag 11 mei 2016

Napoleonic 'treasure' unearthed in Tasmanian bookshop

Left: Co-owners of the Cracked and Spineless bookshop, Richard Sprent (left) and Mike Gray, with the journal.
 
A handwritten journal found buried in an Australian bookshop is believed to be a prominent soldier's diary from the Napoleonic wars, writes Paul Carter.
 
Royal Engineer John Squire was an officer who fought for the British army in the Napoleonic era, but his interests extended far beyond the battlefield. Sophisticated and possessing a talent for writing, he served in theatres of war around the world and was prominent enough to be mentioned in diplomatic dispatches.

Lt Col Squire was a worldly man, with an interest in history and antiquities. So it's fitting that his writings are now causing great excitement on the other side of the planet, in the colony he'd have known as Van Diemen's Land. At the back of a second-hand book store, at the back of a Hobart arcade, at the back of the world in Tasmania, it appears that one of Squire's journals has been discovered.

The new owners of the Cracked and Spineless bookshop discovered the journal in a pile of old books tucked away in a cupboard. It details the English-Portuguese army's second siege of the Spanish city of Badajoz, which took place in May and June 1811, during the Napoleonic Wars.
The bookshop's co-owner, Mike Gray, said the journal was discovered a couple of weeks ago.
"The previous owner collected hundreds of thousands of books," Mr Gray said. "Some of them were in a cupboard so I sent in someone interested in old books to see if they could find anything.
"They brought out the journal and I thought 'yeah, maybe about $20, but I'll check it'. Mr Gray said the journal could have been in the shop for 20 years, but no-one knew how it arrived. A working theory is that it arrived with the colonists who established Van Diemen's Land.

The journal's cover, reading 'journal 1611'A treasure'

Squire died of fever in 1812, soon after the third and successful British siege of Badajoz, which comprised part of the Peninsular War during the Napoleonic era. Some of his letters survive at the British Library. His journals and essays ranged in content from the technical aspects of war to his involvement with antiquities.

These works and his supporting role in some of history's great moments have made Squire a moderately well-known figure among scholars who study the era. Gavin Daly, an expert in the Peninsular War at the University of Tasmania, said he believed the journal was a genuine "treasure". A handwriting match could be made with Squire's letters kept at the British Library, he said. Dr Daly said Squire was mentioned twice in dispatches by the Duke of Wellington. "Squire pops up in Egypt in 1801 when the French surrendered Alexandria. He was in South America in 1807. He was in Sweden in 1808. He was in the Netherlands at various stages and ended up in the peninsula," Dr Daly said.

Officer and gentleman

"He's not just an interesting figure as an engineer but he's also important because he had broad interests in history, geography and antiquities. "He was present when the Rosetta Stone was given to the British. He writes a paper on Roman antiquities in Egypt, and he accompanies William Richard Hamilton east and is involved in bringing some of the Elgin Marbles to Britain. "When he died in the peninsula in 1812 of fever, not long after the third and final siege of Badajoz, there was a considerable lamenting of his life. "He'd been rapidly promoted … but there was also this sense that he was the archetypal gentleman officer, who mixed in broad intellectual circles. He had a broad curiosity about the world."   Dr Daly said the journal was focused on many of the technical aspects of the siege."There's not a lot in the journal about broader reflections about the nature of the war or the nature of the campaign," Dr Daly said. "What comes through though is someone who is very much focused on being as good an officer as he can - he says his foremost obligation being an officer is to do his duty. "This is a very professional soldier."

Image copyright Paul Carter
Image caption The journal is mostly focused on the technical aspects of the siege, rather than the broader context surrounding it

maandag 21 maart 2016

The King of Rome, Napoleon II

Read all about the birth of the King of Rome:  shannonselin/birth-king-of-rome/

Napoleon, a prey to silent agitation, watched this painful scene, encouraging all present by his brave attitude. At last, after many efforts, and in the midst of so much anguish, the so-impatiently-desired child came to light. It was a son, pale, motionless, and to all appearances lifeless. In spite of all the measures taken in such cases, the child remained seven minutes without giving any signs of life. The Emperor standing in front of him was following in silence and with an air of profound attention, every movement of the accoucheur, when at last he saw the child’s breast rise, the mouth open and a breath exhaled. He feared lest it might be the first and last, but a cry escaping from the child’s lungs tells him that his son has taken possession of life. All anxiety then ceases. In the effusion of his joy Napoleon bent over the child, seized it in his arms, with a spontaneous movement, carried it to the door of the drawing-room in which all the grandees of his Empire were assembled and presenting it to them said: ‘Here is the King of Rome.’ He then returned and placed the child back in M. Dubois’s hands saying: ‘I give you back your child.’ …

Read about the life of Napolein II shannonselin/napoleon-ii

Painting: Napoleon II, styled King of Rome, later Duke of Reichstadt, by Thomas Lawrence, 1818-1819
 

donderdag 17 maart 2016

The Countess, Napoleon and St. Helena: In Exile With The Emperor 1815 to 1821


When Napoleon Bonaparte was exiled to the remote island of St. Helena after his defeat at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815 he took with him twenty-four people, including his doctor, servants and four of his Generals.

One of the Generals, Count Henri-Gatien Bertrand, was Napoleon’s Grand Marshal of the Palace. Count Bertrand was accompanied by his wife Countess Françoise Elisabeth (Fanny) Bertrand and their three children. Tall, elegant and aristocratic the Countess was a feisty and beautiful young woman who had shone in French Society. She hated the island of St. Helena ‘The Devil shit this place as he flew from one continent to the other’ she said on her arrival. But loyal to her husband she stayed by his side until Napoleon’s death on 5th May 1821 and was at the ex-Emperor’s bedside when he died. Read more Countess-Napoleon-St-Helena

 
The Bertrand’s Cottage on St Helena, built 1816
 

zaterdag 12 maart 2016

What did Napoleon’s wives think of each other?

In September 1810, Napoleon advised Josephine that the new Empress was pregnant. It was suggested to Josephine that she leave Paris during Marie Louise’s confinement. Josephine was thus at Navarre on March 20, 1811, when the ringing of bells and booming of cannons announced the birth of Napoleon’s and Marie Louise’s son, the King of Rome. She wrote to Napoleon:
Amid the numerous felicitations you receive from every corner of Europe…can the feeble voice of a woman reach your ear, and will you deign to listen to her who so often consoled your sorrows and sweetened your pains, now that she speaks to you only of that happiness in which all your wishes are fulfilled! … I can conceive every emotion you must experience, as you divine all that I feel at this moment; and though separated, we are united by that sympathy which survives all events.
I should have desired to learn of the birth of the King of Rome from yourself, and not from the sound of the cannon of Evreux, or the courier of the prefect. I know, however, that in preference to all, your first attentions are due to the public authorities of the State, to the foreign ministers, to your family, and especially to the fortunate Princess who has realized your dearest hopes. She cannot be more tenderly devoted to you than I; but she has been enabled to contribute more toward your happiness by securing that of France. She has then a right to your first feelings, to all your cares; and I, who was but your companion in times of difficulty – I cannot ask more than a place in your affection far removed from that occupied by the Empress Maria Louisa. Not till you shall have ceased to watch by her bed, not till you are weary of embracing your son, will you take the pen to converse with your best friend – I will wait. (1)

Read all: shannonselin/what-did-napoleons-wives-think-of-each-other/ 

maandag 22 februari 2016

Adam Albert von Neipperg, Lover of Napoleon’s wife

Adam Albert von Neipperg was an Austrian nobleman, soldier and diplomat who seduced Napoleon’s second wife, Marie Louise, while Napoleon was in exile on Elba. Charged with this task by Marie Louise’s father, Emperor Francis I of Austria, Neipperg discouraged Marie Louise from joining her husband and eventually erased any feelings of loyalty Marie Louise had towards Napoleon. Count von Neipperg had three children with Marie Louise. He then quietly married her after Napoleon’s death. Together they proved to be relatively popular governors of the Duchy of Parma.

Read all:
shannonselin/adam-albert-von-neipperg

7 things you (probably) didn’t know about the Napoleonic Wars

 
1) The young Napoleon showed little promise
2) The royal navy attacked a city
3) All sides understood the ‘propaganda war
4) The best way to defeat Spain was to invade Argentina
5) Nobody expected the Spanish Inquisition to end
6) The showdown at Waterloo was delayed due to rain
7) Waterloo was not the final battle against France
Read all: historyextra

donderdag 18 februari 2016

Napoleon's Catholic marriage certificate to be sold at auction

The certificate from Napoleon Bonaparte's secret religious wedding to Josephine in 1804, eight years after their civil marriage, will go under the hammer in March, the French auction house Osenat said Monday.
The document is signed and sealed by Cardinal Joseph Fesch, who presided over the clandestine wedding that took place at the behest of Pope Pius VII as a condition for his presence at Napoleon's coronation.
It is part of a collection being sold by Christopher Forbes, a US billionaire and francophile, that mainly comprises artefacts from the reign of Napoleon's nephew and heir, Napoleon III.
Read all: telegraph

Note boasts rare signatures of naNapoleon, Josephine


Full signatures from a pair of notorious lovebirds — Napoleon and Josephine — lend an otherwise routine 19th-century French marriage contract a rare prestige among other love notes on display at a high-end jewelry and antique showcase in Florida.

Just weeks after the French Senate declared him emperor, Napoleon and Josephine de Beauharnais were witnesses to the wedding of General Pierre-Augustin Hulin, who took part in the storming of the Bastille, sparking the French Revolution.

The document also is one of the first Napoleon signed with his full name, just as a monarch might today, instead of simply writing "Bonaparte" as he had before, Lowenherz said.
Read all: mysanantonio.

vrijdag 9 oktober 2015

Napoleon & entourage approaching StHelena.

              
Early October #1815 Admiral Cockburn & , with & entourage, is approaching .

Le sacre de Napoléon de Jacques-Louis David


Le public admirant Le sacre de Napoléon de Jacques-Louis David au Louvre, 1810.

dinsdag 1 september 2015

Malmaison




château de Malmaison@museemalmaison
Le château de Malmaison

maandag 31 augustus 2015

Palazzo Bonaparte


Piazza Venezia marks the physical center of Rome as well as being a square buzzing with activity and history. On the north end, where Piazza Venezia meets Via del Corso, is the building where Napoleon I’s mother Letizia Ramolino Bonaparte lived: Palazzo Bonaparte. The building was built in 1660 by Giovanni Antonio De Rossi for Marquis Giuseppe Benedetto.  After Napoleon was forced in to exile, Letizia was granted asylum in Rome by Pope Pius VII in 1815. It is said she loved to sit on the covered balcony, hidden from view, and watch the city unfold below her. Once she lost her sight her lady in waiting described the comings and goings to her. Letizia lived at Palazzo Bonaparte until her death in 1836. The building became the property of Italian insurance company Assitalia in 1972, but the name Bonaparte remains on the rooftop


François Gérard : "Marie-Laetitia Bonaparte" (vers 1804)  

St. Helena.

Even today, in spite of its isolation, St. Helena welcomes a small but regular stream of French visitors who come to see the sites linked to their country's former emperor. These include Longwood House, as well as The Briars, Bonaparte's first residence in the island, and The Valley of the Tomb, where he was buried before his remains were later repatriated. The number of Napoleon devotees making the pilgrimage to St. Helena can only be expected to increase once the island becomes more easily accessible from Europe. The Napoleonic Estates also have a peculiarity that adds to St. Helena's uniqueness: they're under direct French administration and enjoy extraterritorial status, making them French enclaves within British territory. The French flag flies over them and the French Republic maintains a consul on the island that takes care of their preservation.

edition saint-helena-napoleon

zondag 30 augustus 2015

Arenenberg, beautiful pictures.

 
Really beautiful pictures on this website: timetravelturtle
Travel writer, Michael Turtle
 
The museum has taken many forms in the years since it began but most recently it has been restored to resemble how it would have looked when Hortense lived here with her son, Louis-Napoleon, who would go on to become Emperor Napoleon III in 1852.

The woman behind the current style of the Napoleon Museum is curator Christina Egli
 
 

 
More pictures on the website. Look and enjoy!

Arenenberg You Tube


maandag 13 juli 2015

Dans la chambre de la reine Hortense de Beauharnais a Arenenberg

Napoleon and Josephine decided that Hortense should marry Napoleon’s brother Louis

Napoleon and Josephine decided that Hortense should marry Napoleon’s brother Louis, even though the two didn’t particularly like each other. As discussed in my post about Louis, the marriage, which took place on January 4, 1802, was miserable. Reflecting on it during his exile on St. Helena, Napoleon said:
There were faults on both sides. On the one hand, Louis was too teasing in his temper, and, on the other, Hortense was too volatile. … Hortense, the virtuous, the generous, the devoted Hortense, was not entirely faultless in her conduct towards her husband. This I must acknowledge in spite of all the affection I bore her, and the sincere attachment which I am sure she entertained for me. Though Louis’s whimsical humours were in all probability sufficiently teasing, yet he loved Hortense; and in such a case a woman should learn to subdue her own temper, and endeavour to return her husband’s attachment. Had she acted in the way most conducive to her interest, she might have avoided her late lawsuit, secured happiness to herself and followed her husband to Holland. Louis would not then have fled from Amsterdam, and I should not have been compelled to unite his kingdom to mine—a measure which contributed to ruin my credit in Europe. Many other events might also have taken a different turn. shannonselin

vrijdag 6 maart 2015

Wood violets were said to be a favorite of Josephine de Beauharnais.


Wood violets were said to be a favorite of Napoleon's first wife, Josephine de Beauharnais, and after her death in the early 1800s, Napoleon was found to be wearing a locket with wood violets he had taken from Josephine's grave. Read  more: victoriaadvocate

dinsdag 24 februari 2015

Hermitage Amsterdam en Hortus Botanicus brengen gezamenlijk een hommage aan Joséphine de Beauharnais.

De keizerin staat dit voorjaar centraal in de Amsterdamse Plantage. In dit samenwerkingsproject gaat de bezoeker mee naar het beroemde tuinpaleis van de keizerin, Château de Malmaison, net buiten Parijs.

Joséphine toverde het om tot een lusthof met een prachtige kunstcollectie en paradijselijke tuinen vol bijzondere bloemen, planten en vogels als zeldzame zwarte zwanen en struisvogels. Het was Napoleons favoriete hideaway en werd vrijwel direct na zijn nederlaag en verbanning een favoriete bestemming van de hoogste Europese adel, zoals de koning van Pruisen en niet in de laatste plaats tsaar Alexander van Rusland. Joséphine hield er haar hof en overleed er te midden van haar geliefde kunst, flora en fauna.

Hoewel de hommage een samenwerkingsverband is, besteden Hermitage Amsterdam en Hortus Botanicus ieder op een eigen manier aandacht aan Joséphine. In de Hermitage Amsterdam toont ‘Alexander, Napoleon & Joséphine. Een verhaal van vriendschap, oorlog en kunst uit de Hermitage’ hoe de Europese geschiedenis Napoleon en tsaar Alexander I verbond. Joséphine speelt in deze tentoonstelling een fascinerende rol, eerst als keizerin aan de zijde van Napoleon en later als goede vriendin van Alexander I. Zij legde een enorme kunstcollectie aan van onschatbare waarde, met onder andere Hollandse en Italiaanse meesters. Vele highlights ervan zijn te zien in de Hermitage Amsterdam.

De Hortus Botanicus vertelt met de tentoonstelling ‘Joséphine. Een keizerrijk in een tuin’ over haar andere grote passie: het verzamelen en kweken van bloemen en planten. Joséphines Château de Malmaison was 200 jaar geleden het thuis van haar kunstcollectie, maar ook van haar bijzondere planten- en bloementuinen. Deze prachtige wereld komt weer tot leven in de Hermitage en de Hortus. Een korte looproute van 300 meter verbindt beide tentoonstellingen.
Beide tentoonstellingen gaan open op 28 maart 2015 en bieden een combinatieticket voor 17,50 euro.
BRON: Persbericht Hermitage Amsterdam

Schilderij: François Flameng, Feestelijke receptie in het Château de Malmaison in 1802, ca. 1894. Olieverf op doek, 106 x 139 cm.© State Hermitage Museum, St Petersburg

zondag 15 februari 2015

“Toi et moi.”

The engagement ring the young Napoleon “must have broken his wallet” to buy for his fiancee Josephine.
 
The golden ring is in an 18th century setting called “toi et moi,” “You and Me,” with opposing tear-shaped jewels — a blue sapphire and a diamond. The carat weight of the two gems is little less than a carat each.
The marriage didn’t last, but “Josephine continued to treasure the ring and gave it to her daughter Hortense, later Queen of Holland, through whom it came down to her son, Napoleon III and his wife Empress Eugene. d-unknown/napoleon-and-josephines-engagement-ring

zaterdag 14 februari 2015

French Revolution Digital Archive.

The French Revolution Digital Archive (FRDA) is a multi-year collaboration of the Stanford University Libraries and the Bibliothèque nationale de France (BnF) to produce a digital version of the key research sources of the French Revolution and make them available to the international scholarly community. The archive is based around two main resources, the Archives parlementaires and a vast corpus of images first brought together in 1989 and known as the Images de la Revolution française.

"Madame, you must wear silk!”.

 
This lavender-coloured Manteau de Cour of moire silk is the only example in the Netherlands to date of a court train from the  period during which the Netherlands were under the French rule of the Bonaparte’s. europeanafashion/centraal-museum-utrecht-
 
There was no more trade, no orders, there had been many deaths among the weavers. Napoleon was particularly enamoured of the city of Lyon: the five times he visited there are inscribed clearly in the history of the city, from his return from Italy to the Hundred Days. At each visit, he made a point of visiting the Lyon silk workshops, and had a very acute vision of what should be done to revive the industry in Lyon. There was a real desire for revival through power. From the very beginning of the nineteenth century his numerous orders of damask - a rather simple but very beautiful fabric – were used to "imperialise the royal palaces", starting with the Palace of  Saint-Cloud. These fabrics herald a new era: we see already the two typical groups of motifs of the First Empire: the floral and the geometric... From the outset Napoleon is aware power of luxury as a political instrument, for fabric as for the other decorative arts. In 1811 and 1813 he made two huge orders: it is said that these two commissions alone represented over a hundred kilometres of fabric.

There are lot of verifiable anecdotes where the Emperor is most insistant for example towards a particular person, especially Josephine: "Madame, you must wear silk!”, which was not Josephine's cup of tea. She preferred lighter fabrics, fine materials that were reminiscent of her islands, as illustrated by the dresses presented in our exhibition. Empire dresses do not look at all like the eighteenth century dresses, all made of taffeta and silk. It is known that Napoleon encouraged his marshals, generals and advisors to wear silk. There is even a 1804 decree defining the clothing of ministers: "The ministers will wear their ordinary costume, which can be buttoned and almost closed in front, made of silk, velvet or cloth with a white scarf, from which the sword is suspended [...]”. In a curious way, Napoleon's tastes meant that male clothes began to resemble those of the Ancien Regime. napoleon

donderdag 12 februari 2015

Hippolyte Charles

Hippolyte Charles met the married Josephine Bonaparte in Paris at one of the soirees frequently given by Josephine’s friend Theresia Tallien. The couple embarked on one of the most intense love affairs of Josephine’s life.
Whereas Napoleon was loving and sincere in his adoration for his new wife, he was solemn, serious and intense in his outlook. Hippolyte Charles was the opposite: a young man in his mid twenties: handsome, outgoing, full of fun and extremely popular with the women in a social world in which he felt completely at ease. He and Josephine became lovers during Napoleon’s frequent absences.
In May 1796 Napoleon scored a decisive victory in the Italian campaign, with the battle of Lodi. He recorded that he felt truly a man of destiny and he wanted his wife by his side. 

When Napoleon was based near Milan in the Palazzo Serbelloni, he wrote frequently to Josephine asking her to join him.  Josephine’s affair with Hippolyte was in full flow and she was perplexed by Napoleon’s steady stream of correspondence to her, almost worshipping her.  She wasn’t particularly interested in leaving her luxurious and party life in Paris: even less fond of the idea of leaving her passionate lover, Hippolyte Charles.
There was much gossip about the relationship and news was spreading to Napoleon’s camp. He at first refused to believe in the rumours, but these were increasingly fuelled by his family and others of influence, who wished to be rid of Josephine.

Eventually, under great pressure exerted by Napoleon, she travelled to Italy: accompanied by Hippolyte. He moved into the Palazzo whenever Napoleon moved out. Still hearing rumours, Napoleon had Hippolyte transferred into the regiment close to him, where he could keep an eye on him. When evidence of the affair was becoming overwhelming Napoleon had Hippolyte arrested and almost had him shot.  It was Hippolyte’s close friendship with the influential Generals Duroc and Junot, who persuaded Napoleon to spare him and he was transferred back to Paris.
Hippolyte and Josephine were to continue seeing each other, but when she learned that he had taken an Italian lover she was deeply upset.  At the same time she learned of the premature death of her former lover Lazare Hoche. It was the affair between Hippolyte and Josephine that eventually reversed the relationship in the marriage between Napoleon and Josephine. Whereas he forgave her and she never took another lover and became totally devoted to Napoleon: he began to take other lovers that continued throughout the remaining years of their marriage. onlylovethemusical./charactershippolyte
 
  

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